26 July 2016

What is Networking/Network? (Part 1)

What is Networking/Network?


Hello friends, and welcome on NextIsEasy. Today I’m going to talk about networking and What is networking? So let start….
In our daily life, we come across different types of network. Let us understand this concept through some examples:
·         Network of roads, railway lines, canals etc.
·         Communication network of telephone system which enables us to talk to anyone, anywhere, any time.
·         Networks of banks/ATM’s.
·         Radio/television network broadcasts programs live across countries and continents.
·         Video conferencing is a network that allows discussions between people at far off places.
·         A network of malls, schools, hospitals etc. all over the country.
·         Internet is an outcome of cyber networking.
Now imagine life without networking… no phones, no television, no INTERNET etc. it’s unbelievable.
A computer network enables two or more computers to share data and resources. They communicate with each other, as well as independently. They can also share printers, modems and other peripheral devices like CD drive etc. The devices can be separated by a few meters (via cables etc.) or thousands of kilometers (via Internet).

Are These Networks?

·         A computer is connected to a printer, but there is no communication between different computers, as there is only one computer. So this is not an example of network.
·         Two computers sharing data with each other is an example of a very simple network.

Advantages Of Networking

Networking in computers brings efficiency, economy and effectiveness is any organization.
1.       Efficient Use Of Storage Media :
It’s better to store a shareable application data on a network drive than to store a copy of the application on each user’s storage device. It is better to have one big hard disk in the server than to have small hard disks in different computers.

2.       Preserving Information :
It is difficult to maintain regular backups on a number of stand alone computers. When you keep backups on a central location, you have one place to look for the lost information.

3.       Reduction In Hardware Costs :
In a network, the hardware devices, which are not used very often, like modems, printers, scanners, CD-writers etc. can be shared. This reduces the cost of hardware.

4.       Efficiency :
In a network, the deletion, modification or up graduation of the software/data is to be done at a single point. This brings more efficiency and effectiveness into working system.

5.       Redundancy :
Networks reduce the need for hard copies of all documents. By sharing files over the network, the need to share paper copies of reports or any other information can be eliminated or greatly reduced.

6.       Quickest Document Delivery :
Internet provides a facility to instantly deliver soft copies from one computer to other computer throughout the world.

Network components

To establish wired networking group of computers, we require the following additional components:
1.       Network Card:
A network card is used to physically attach a computer to a network, so that it can participate in network communication. Ethernet network card is the most commonly used network card. (Now-a-days, most of the computer motherboards come with the network Card inbuilt).

2.       Networking Cable :
Modern Ethernet networks use twisted pair cable containing eight wires. These wires are arranged in a special order, and an RJ-45 connector (similar to but bigger than the connector used with the telephone wire) is crimped at both the ends of the cable.

3.       Hubs and Switches :
Network cards are used to send and receive data being transmitted over Ethernet cables. When the network has more than two computers, we cannot directly connected all the computers together. We need an interface through which the computers can be connected and sending and receiving of data can take place. This function is performed by a hub or a switch. Hubs were the preferred medium in earlier times but now switches are being used because of their better efficiency.

A Hubs/Switch performs the following functions :

·         Acts as a central point of connection for all of the computers on the network. Every computer plugs into the hubs/switches.
·         To arrange the ports in such a way so that if a PC transmits data, the data is sent over the other computers through its network card.
·         Basically the hubs/switch is a box with a set of RJ-5 ports. Each computer on the network is connected to the hub/switch via an Ethernet cable.

Types of network

When we talk about types of network, there are three types of network:
1.        Local Area Network (LAN)
2.       Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
3.       Wide Area Network (WAN)
Let discuss briefly……..

1.         Local Area Network (LAN) :
In Local Area Network (LAN) two or more computers and peripheral devices are connected within small area, as in a room, office building or a campus. The number of computers in a Local Area Network (LAN) varies from 2 to 1000 computers. The data transmission speed is slow as compared to Wide Area Network (WAN).



2.       Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) :
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a larger network than Local Area Network (LAN) network. It is spread across a city. Since it covers a city, it is called a Metropolitan. The most common example of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) type in our daily life is Cable Television.



3.       Wide Area Network (WAN) :
This kind of network connects two or more computers located at far away places. They are linked by communication facilities like telecommunication or satellite signals. The most common example of Wide Area Network (WAN) type network in our daily life is telecom system. The usage of Wide Area Network (WAN) is limited to very large organizations and government agencies. The main characteristic of Wide Area Network (WAN) is that it requires a public telecommunication media to transfer data. 

The best example of Wide Area Network (WAN) is:
·         Internet and Intranet in a large multinational companies are done by Wide Area Network (WAN)
·         ATM facilities are the result of Wide Area Network (WAN).
·         Multinational bank customer services are also a result of Wide Area Network (WAN).

Wireless Networking

To establish Wireless networking, we require the following components:
  •    Wireless Network Cards are used instead of the normal Network Cards being use in the wired networks. Most of the laptop computers come with the wireless network cards inbuilt.
  • ·  Ethernet cable is not required as Radio Signals are used for transferring data.
  • ·   Access Points or Routers instead of hubs/switches. These have a wireless antenna which increases the communication range of the radio signals. Access Point can also be used to join a wired network, thus making the network a combination of wired as well as wireless network.

Difference Between Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN)


          LAN
1.       LAN is restricted to a limited geographical area.
2.       In LAN, computer terminals are physically connected with wires.
3.       Data speed is slow.
4.       A few data transmission errors occur.
                                                                                            
             WAN

1.       WAN covers greater distance and operates nationwide.
2.       In WAN, computer terminals are not physically connected with wires.
3.       Data speed is fast.
4.       Larger data transmission errors occur.


Network Security

The most important aspect in computer networking is data security. Since many users are accessing the same data, so we must ensure its proper security. Only authorized persons can access or modify data. Consider the following in an organization:


  • ·   Some employees may try to change the data concerning their leave record, salaries, performance appraisals etc.
  • ·  Accidental deletion of important data.
  • ·  Former employees or some other people may try to harm the company’s data.
  • ·   People outside the company may try to access confidential data.
Network security means protecting data and resources from access by unauthorized persons. There are two general levels of network security:
·         Login security: You are given a unique login name and password.
·         Rights security: Based upon your user name, you are given rights like Read- Only Access or Read -Write Access or No access at all. A combination of rights can also be granted to the same user for different sets of data.

Terms to Remember

Like any book in this post I’ll going to end this with the TERMS TO REMEMBER let read out:


  • ·  In a network, two or more computers can communicate with each other and share peripheral devices.
  • ·  Network improves the communication speed and accuracy.
  • ·  We can send messages at a very fast speed over a long distance using satellite and microwaves.
  • ·  Computers, which are connected to the server are called Workstations or nodes.

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