13 December 2016

Categories of Network


Definition of A Network

Networking can be defined as the act of linking two or more computer,system,nodes, workstation 
or other devices with the primary aim of sharing resources e.g. Printer, CD-ROM, Modem, Softwares e.t.c

Networking Prerequisites

  • At least two computers {server or client workstations}
  • Transmission Media {Bounded and Unbounded Media} e.g. Bounded media(wired)
  • Uses cable or wire for connection/communication and Unbounded media(wireless): It uses wireless technologies for connection/communication.
  • Network Operating System{NOS} such as Microsoft windows NT or 2000,Novell NetWare, Unix and Linux.

Network Category

1. CLIENT/SERVER OR SERVER BASED NETWORK

In a client-server network there is a dedicated computer (server) which all other computers (clients) on that network request service from. Numbers of users are unlimited and security wise it is the best. In a client to server network, a specialized network administrator is needed to implement, configure, maintain and troubleshoot the network.

The client/server model consists of high-end servers serving clients continuously on a network, by providing them with specific services upon request. The classifications for servers are
  • File server, can be used to store the client documents and files centrally. An ideal file server should have a large amount of memory, fast hard-disks, multiple processors, fast network adapters, redundant power supplies etc.
  • Print server, which redirects print jobs from clients to specific printers.
  • Application server, which allows clients to run certain programs on the server, and enables multiple users to common applications across the network. Typically Application Servers run business logic. Which means, every business is different and the Application Server is the Server Software which controls the business process? Examples for Application Servers are SAP BASIS, WebLogic, WebSphere etc.
  • Database server, which allows authorized clients to view, modify and/or delete data in a common database. Examples of Database Management Systems are Oracle 8i/9i/10g, MS SQL Server 2000/2005/2008/2012, IBM DB2, MySQL etc.
  • Directory Servers, which allows the central administration of users and resources. Examples of Directory Servers are Active Directory, NDS (Novell Directory Services), Fedora Directory Server, OpenLDAP etc.
  • The server needs a Network Operating System to function. The most popular NOSs are Windows NT (obsolete), Windows 2000 (obsolete), Windows 2003 (obsolete), Windows 2008, Windows 2008 R2, Windows 2012, Windows 2012 R2, Unix, GNU/Linux, Novell Netware etc. These Server Operating Systems will provide the services, which are requested by the client computers.

2. PEER TO PEER

In a peer-peer network each computers, workstations are independent of themselves. They act as both client and server. Peer to peer network is not expensive to implement and no administrator is needed. Users acts as their own administrator. Computers that makes up a peer-peer network ranges from 1-10. Peer to peer network is best implemented at home, a school and in a small office or business environment.


A Peer-to-Peer network has no dedicated servers. Here a number of workstations are connected together for the purpose of sharing information or devices. All the workstations are considered as equal. Any one computer can act as client or server at any instance.


This network is ideal for small networks where there is no need for dedicated servers, like home network or small business establishments or shops. The Microsoft term for peer-to-peer network is “Workgroup”. Typically a Workgroup contain less than 10 workstations.

 Normal workstation operating systems are Windows 95/98 (obsolete), Windows ME (obsolete), NT Workstation (obsolete), Windows 2000 professional (obsolete), Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, RHEL Workstation etc.

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