The OSI Model - Networking


The OSI Model presents a layered approach to networking. Each layer of the OSI model handles different segment of the communication process in a network. It simplified how network hardware and software work together. It also eased method for troubleshooting by providing a specific method for how components should function. The OSI model has 7 layers and I shall begin from the 7th layer.

The OSI Models

7. Application Layer

Provides a set of interfaces for applications to use to gain access to networked services such as file transfer, message handling, and database query processing.

6. Presentation Layer

Converts data into a generic format for network transmission; for incoming messages it converts data from this format into a format that the receiving application can understand. It is also called the network's translator. It is responsible for protocol conversation, data encryption and decryption, and graphics commands.

5. Session Layer

Allows two networked resources to hold on going communications, called a session, across a network. Such that applications on each end of the session are able to exchange data for the duration of the session. The layer manages session setup, information or message exchanges, and tear-down when the session ends.

4. Transport Layer

Manages the transmission of data across a network. This layer provides error checks to guarantee error-free delivery.

3. Network Layer:

Handles and addresses messages for delivery, as well as translates logical network addresses and names into their physical equivalent/counterparts. This layer also handles packets switching, data routing, and network congestion control.

2. Data Link Layer

Handles special data frames between the Network Layer and the Physical Layer.

1. Physical Layer

The physical layer converts bits into signals for outgoing messages and converts signals into bits for incoming messages. It manages the interface between a computer and the network medium. The physical layer is responsible for putting data on and retrieving data from physical medium (Cable or wireless).

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