Robot Technology

, 0 Comments




OBJECTIVE


Realize the fundamentals of Robot Technology.  Know the general characteristic of Robot. Understand the basic components of Robots. Recognize Robot anatomy be informed of Robot generation.

Be aware of Robot selection.


DEFINITION


Robot technology is an applied science that is referred to as a combination of machine tools and computer applications. Include such diverse fields as machine design, control theory, Microelectronics, Computer Programming, Artificial intelligence, Human Factors and Production Theory.


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS


A specialized machine tools with a degree of flexibility that distinguishes them from fixed-purpose automation.

Is essential a mechanical arm that is bolted to the Floor, A machine, the ceiling or in some cases the wall fitted with its Mechanical Hand, and taught to do repetitive task in a controlled, ordered environment ability to move Mechanical Arm to perform work.
 Robot interface with their work environment once a Mechanical hand has been attached to the Robots’ Tool mounting plate. 


DEFINITIONS


  • WORK ENVELOPE: The set of points representing the maximum extend or reach of the Robot hand or working tool in all direction.
  • PAYLOAD: The ability to carry, continuously and satisfaction, a given maximum weight at a given speed.
  • VELOCITY: The maximum speed at which the tip of a Robot is capable of moving at full extension, expressed in inches or Millimeters per Second.
  • CYCLE: Time it takes for Robot to complete one cycle of picking up a given object at a given height, moving it to a given distance, lowering it, releasing it and returning to the starting point
  • ACCURACY: A Robot’s ability to position the End Effector at a specified point in space upon receiving a control command without previously having attained that position.
  • REPEATIBILITY: The ability of a Robot to Return consistently to a previously defined and achieved location.
  •  RESOLUTION: The smallest incremental change in position that it make or its control system can measure.
  • SIZE: The physical size of a Robot, which influences its capacity and its capabilities.


BASIC COMPONENTS


The basic components of an industrial Robot are the Manipulator and the End Effector(which is the part of an Manipulator) and the Power Supply and the Controller.  

The Manipulator, which is the Robot’s Arm, consist of segments jointed together with axes capable of motion in various directions allow the Robot to perform work.

The Effector which is a gripper tool, a special device, or fixed attached to the Robot’s Arm, actually performs the work.

Power Supply provides and regulates the energy that is converted to motion by the Robot Actuator, and it may be either – electric, Pneumatic or hydraulic.

The controller initiates, terminates, and coordinates the motion of sequences of a Robot. Also it accepts the Robot and provides the outputs to interface with the outside world. 



MANIPULATOR


 IS A MECHANICAL UNIT THAT PROVIDES MOTION SIMILAR TO THAT OF A HUMAN ARM?

Its primary function is to provide the specific motions that will enable the tooling at the end of the arm to do the required work.

A Robot movement can be divided into two general categories: Arm and Body (shoulder and Elbow) Motions and the wrist Motions.

The individual joint motions associated with these categories are referred to as degree of Freedom.

Also Read: What is Big Data? 

Each axis is equal to one degree of freedom. Typically, an industrial Robots are equipped with 46 degrees of Freedom.

The wrist can reach a point in space with specific orientation by any of three Motions: A Pitch or Up-and-Down Motion; A Yaw, or Side-to-Side Motion; And A roll, Or Rotating Motion and The joint labeled pitch, Yaw and Roll are called Orientation Axes.

The points that manipulator bends, slides, or rotates are called joints or position axes.

Manipulation is carried out using mechanical devices, such as Linkages, Gears, Actautors, and Feedback devices.

Position axes are called as world coordinates, is identifies as being fixed location within the manipulators that serves as absolute frame or reference. 

  • THE X-AXIS TRAVEL MOVES THE MANIPULATOR IN AN IN-AND-OUT MOTION.
  • THE Y-AXIS MOTION CAUSES THE MANIPULATOR TO MOVE SIDE-TO-SIDE.
  • THE Z AXIS MOTION CAUSES THE MANIPULATOR TO MOVE IN AND UPAND-DOWN MOTION.

The mechanical design of a Robot manipulator design of a Robot manipulator relates directly to its work envelope and motion characteristics. 


END EFFECTOR


IS THE DEVICE THAT IS MECHANICALLY OPENED AND CLOSED?

Act as the tool-mounting plate.

Depending on the type of operation, conventional End Effector are equipped with various devices and tool attachments, as follows:

  • Grippers
  • Hooks
  • Scoops
  • Electromagnets
  • Vacuum cups
  • Adhesive Fingers 

End Effector is generally custom-made to meet special handling requirements.

Mechanical Grippers are most commonly used and are equipped with two or more fingers. The selection of an appropriate End Effector for a specific application depends upon factors such as Payload, Environment, Reliability and cost.


POWER SUPPLY


The function of the Power Supply is to provide and regulate energy that is required for a Robot to be operated.

THERE ARE THREE BASIC TYPES O POWER SUPPLIES:

  • ELECTRIC
  • HYDRAULIC
  • PNEUMATIC

Electricity is the most common source of Power and is used extensively with industrial Robots.

The second most common source is PNEUMATIC, and the least common is HYDRAULIC POWER.

Also Read: What is DNS?

The power supply has a Direct Relation to the Payload Rating. 


CONTROLLER


The controller is a communication an information processing device that initiates, terminates and coordinates the motions and sequences of a Robot.

It accepts necessary input to the Robot and provides the output drive signals to a controlling motor or actuator to correspond with the Robot Movements and outside world.

The heart of the controller is the computer and it Solid-State Memory. 

THE INPUT AND OUTPUT SECTION OF A CONTROL SYSTEM MUST PROVIDE A COMMUNICATION NTERFACE BETWEEN THE ROBOT CONTROLLER COMPUTER AND FOLLOWING PARTS:

  • FEEDBACK SENSORS
  • PRODUCTION SENSORS
  • PRODUCTION MACHINE TOOLS
  • TEACHING DEVICE
  • PROGRAM STORAGE DEVICES
  • HARD COPY DEVICES

The computer controls the motion of the Robot Arm by means of Drive Signals that pass through the drive interface to the Actuators on the Arm.


Robots are often classified under the three major categories, according to the type of control system used: 

  • NONSERVO – OPEN LOOP SYSTEM
  • SERVO – CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM
  • SERVO-CONTROLLED – CLOSED LOOP SYSTEMS WITH CONTINUOUSLY CONTROLLED PATH


ROBOT ANATOMY


Robot Anatomy is concerned with the Physical Construction and Characteristics of the Body, Arm, and Wrist, which are components of Robot Manipulator.

Movements between the various components of the Body, Arm and Wrist are provided by a series of joints.

Attached to the Robot wrist is the End Effector (or End-of-Arm Tolling) that performs the works.

The End Effector is not considered a part of the Robot’s Anatomy.


ROBOT CONFIGURATIONS:

  1. Industrial Robots are available in a wide range of shapes, sizes, speed, load capacities, and other capabilities.
  2. The vast majority of Tody’s commercially available Robots possess five distinct configurations:

A. RECTANGULAR (OR CARTESIAN) 
B. CYLINDIRICAL (OR POST-TYPE) 
C. SPHERICAL (OR POLAR)
D. JOINTED ARM (ARTICULATED OR REVOLUTE) 
E. SCARA (SELECTIVE COMPLAINCE ASSEMBLY ROBOT ARM)


ROBOT GENERATIONS


THE FIVE GENERATIONS OF ROBOT CONTROLLERS AFTER THE HIGHTECH INCEPTION IN 1960 ARE AS FOLLOWS:

  • FIRST GENERATION:

REPEATING ROBOTS- These were generally Pick and Place Robots, with mechanical sequences defining stop points.

  • SECOND GENERATION:

Hardwired controllers provided the first programmable units.

  • THIRD GENERATION:

Programmable logic controllers (PLC), Introduced in the industries over thirteen years ago, provides a Microprocessor-Based Robotic controller that is easy to program.

  • FOURTH GENERATION:

When control beyond the PCL is required, a microcomputer may control the entire system, including other programmable machinery I a Robot Workcell.

  • FIFTH GENERATION:

Robot controller will involve complete Artificial intelligence (AI), Miniature Sensors, and Decision making capability.

An artificial Biological Robot might provide the impetus for sixth and higher generation Robots. 


SUMMARY


ROBOT TECHNOLOGY is an applied science that is referred to as combination of machine tool fundamentals and computer applications.

The basic components of an Industrial Robot are:

  • MANIPULATOR
  • END EFFECTOR
  • POWER SUPPLY
  • CONTROL SYSTEM

Also Read: Cloud Computing 

Robot Anatomy is concerned with the physical construction and operation of the manipulator and has five basic configurations:

  • RECTANGULAR
  • CYLINDRICAL
  • SPHERICAL
  • JOINTED-ARM
  • SCARA



SO FAR, There have been five Generation of Robot Controllers and we are merging now to Sixth, seventh and Even higher generations.

Robots with increasing Intelligence, Sensory Capability, Dexterity, and Sophisticated control systems have become Dominant factor in modern Manufacturing.

THE THREE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF ROBOTS IN MANUFACTURING ARE: DYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE, ECONOMICS AND SAFETY.



At the last we only say please comment below about this post because we already give you the exact date, when we are releasing this post. You need more this Type of Posts/Articles Comment below J

Thank you!



 READ MORE:



Next is Easy

We care about your time, that's why we only provide you some best stuff. Here you can get everything related to tech.

0 comments: